Moslems in United Kingdom

 Moslem in United Kingdom

Ayufi , English Literature, Art and Language Faculty 

Islam in Europe

Over the past 20 years a profound change has been taking place among the younger generation of Muslims in Europe. Fifty years ago, most Muslims were immigrants who came looking for work and planned to return home as soon as they could. For the most part, this first generation came from simple backgrounds. They had made no great study of Islam and continued religious practices that remained heavily marked by their culture of origin, whether Indo-Pakistani, North African or Turkish. Assuming that their stay was temporary, parents at first tried to protect themselves from this unfamiliar European environment rather than integrate themselves into it. But most of these original immigrants never left. Their children were born in Europe, became fluent in their national language and became better educated than their elders. The parents’ dream of going home faded. The emergence of this new generation of European Muslims has resulted in a new way of thinking and talking about the nature of Islamic communities here.

Muslim in Britain

Muslim also touches Britain. In the 18th and 19th Centuries there were a number of converts to Islam amongst the English upper classes, including Edward Montagu, son of the ambassador to Turkey. The first large group of Muslims in Britain arrived about 300 years ago. They were sailors recruited in India to work for the East India Company, and so it’s not surprising that the first Muslim communities were found in port towns. Ships’ cooks came too, many of them from Sylhet in what is now Bangladesh. There are records of Sylhetis working in London restaurants as early as 1873.

Some Muslim sailors decided to stay in Britain and simply left their ships without going through any formal immigration procedure. The next wave of Muslim immigration to Britain followed the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. The increase in trade caused a demand for men to work in ports and on ships. Most of these immigrants came from the Yemen, probably because Aden was the main refueling stop for ships between Britain and the Far East, and many of the seamen later settled in the port cities of Cardiff, Liverpool, South Shields, Hull, and London. There are now an estimated 70-80,000 Yemenis living in Britain, who form the longest-established Muslim group in Britain.

An example is the Yemeni community of South Shields, which began at the end of the 19th century when Yemenis working as stokers on steamships moved ashore and set up boarding houses in the dock area. The first mosque in Britain is recorded as having been at 2 Glyn Rhondda Street, Cardiff, in 1860.

Muslim Growth

Since the first coming to Britain and Europe, Muslim population is growing and larger. Based on reasonably good data. Between 2004 and 2008, the Muslim population of the UK grew at an annual rate of 6.7 percent, making Muslims 4 percent of the population in 2008. Extrapolating from those figures would mean that the Muslim population in 2020 would be 8 percent, 15 percent in 2030, and 28 percent in 2040 and finally, in 2050, the Muslim population of the UK would exceed 50 percent of the total population.

Another source says that there were 1.6 million Muslims in England and Wales in 2001, or 3 per cent of the population, according to the census. By 2011 the Muslim population had grown to 2.7 million people or 4.8 per cent of the population.

Based on those data, it is no doubt that the number of people who identify themselves as Muslims has grown rapidly in recent years.

There are some factors that influence the growing of Muslim population in Britain or United Kingdom. First factor is morality. A survey conducted by Kevin Brice from Swansea University in Wales, asked converts for their views on the negative aspects of British culture. They identified “alcohol and drunkenness,” a “lack of morality and sexual permissiveness” and “unrestrained consumerism. “More than one in four acknowledged there was a “natural conflict” between being a devout Muslim and living in Britain. Nine out of ten women converts said their change of religion had led to them dressing more conservatively. More than half started wearing a head scarf and 5% had worn the burka.

The second factor is better services in certain thing, for example in prisons cases. Government authorities recently revealed that an increasing number of inmates at British prisons are converting to Islam. For example, one-third of the inmates at one of Britain’s most notorious youth jails are Muslims and the religion is attracting a large number of converts. Prison insiders say most non-Muslims are locked up during Friday prayers because so many guards are needed to monitor the lunchtime service. As a consequence, many disillusioned youngsters are becoming attracted to Islam by the prospect of getting better food and superior treatment at the prison.

Third factor is Islamic proselytizing activity disaffection Christianity. A source says that most conversions to Islam are being triggered by a combination of increasing proselytizing activity by Muslims as well as by a growing disaffection with Christianity. Some observers say the decline of traditional Christian churches in Britain, a trend that is being accompanied by the demise of Judeo-Christian moral codes in British society, is creating a spiritual vacuum that Islam is beginning to fill. In any event, all indications are that a growing number of Britons who grew up in nominally Christian households are converting to Islam. This partially explains why the number of Muslims is increasing while the number of Christians is declining. The trend can be expected to continue. In a study released in 2005, the British-based association Christian Research said that successive generations attend church less frequently than previous ones. The study, English Church Census 2005, predicted that the number of Christians attending Sunday services in Britain will fall by two-thirds over the next three decades. The study also expected that poor attendance will force some 18,000 churches to close.

Muslim Issues in Britain_Islam Phobia- Anti Muslim

phobia, according to the Merriam-Webster dictionary, is an exaggerated, usually inexplicable and illogical fear of a particular object, class of objects, or situation. It may be hard for the afflicted to sufficiently determine or communicate the source of this fear, but it exists. In recent years, a specific phobia has gripped Western societies – Islamophobia. Researchers and policy groups define Islam phobia in differing detail, but the term’s essence is essentially the same, no matter the source.

An exaggerated fear, hatred, and hostility toward Islam and Muslims that is perpetuated by negative stereotypes resulting in bias, discrimination, and the marginalization and exclusion of Muslims from social, political, and civic life.[1]

Islamophobia existed in premise before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, but it increased in frequency and notoriety during the past decade. The Runnymede Trust in the U.K., for example, identified eight components of Islamophobia in a 1997 report, and then produced a follow-up report in 2004 after 9/11 and the initial years of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. The second report found the aftermath of the terrorist attacks had made life more difficult for British Muslims. Islamophobia affects more than a small fringe group of Muslims.

Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in England and Wales with 2.7 million people (4.8 per cent of population). Most of Britain’s Muslims reside in London (1.13 million) and Muslims comprise 12.4 per cent of London’s residents (35 per cent in Tower Hamlets).Whilst research from the Institute of Race Relations demonstrates that race hate crime is no longer confined to major urban centres – the geography of hate is shifting to more small town or even rural contexts – London still remains Britain’s ‘capital of hate crime’in 2011 it accounted for around 22 per cent of race hate crime, and around 35 per cent of religious hate crime. Metropolitan police figures recorded 333 anti-Muslim incidents in 2010/11; and 337 incidents during 2012. More recent figures suggest that for the year end May 2013, there had been a +147.5 per cent increase in anti-Muslim hate crime in the capital.

London, having the largest population, still dominates the picture but it is worth noting that both Leicestershire and Greater Manchester witnessed higher rates of hate crime per 1,000 crimes committed.

Faith Matters, an organization working to reduce extremism and interfaith tensions, has been one of the most cited sources for those who have noted an increase in anti-Muslim activity. In its first 12 months since launching in March 2012, Tell MAMA reported that there had been 632 anti-Muslim hate incidents, 58% of which were against. If reliable, Tell MAMA’s reports over the past week represent a 15-fold increase on last year’s average.

Since 2008 police forces recording, and collating data on the following five standards of hate crime,

–       Race

–       Faith and Religion

–       Sexual Orientation

–       Transgender

–       Disability

Across the period 2006-7 to 2010-11, there had been a 26 per cent fall in the number of racially or religiously aggravated offences in England and Wales.

But, for the calendar year 2011, total recorded hate crime from police forces in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, still stood at an alarming 44,361 incidents, of which 35,875 were recorded as race hate crimes, and 1,773 were recorded as religious hate crimes. 1

According to preliminary research carried out by Faith Matters, as of early 2012 only 3 police forces out of a total of 43 collated information about Islamophobic/anti-Muslim hate crime. However, an indicative breakdown (2011) from official figures reveals that of those where the victim’s religion was ‘known’ (n. 1,216), 52 per cent (632) were recorded as religious hate crimes against Muslims (compared to 26 per cent against people of Jewish faith; and 14 per cent against people of Christian faith). When it comes to religious hate crime, most victims are Muslim.

Figures provided by the CPS from the year 2011-12 reveal that the majority of defendants in both racist and religiously motivated hate crimes are men (83 per cent), White British (73.6 per cent), and aged 25-59 (54.2 per cent). Of the principal offence category for racial and religious hate crime, 49.6 per cent involved offences against the person, and 32.5 per cent involved various public order offences. The primary sites of (official) reported hate crimes are most often public .spaces (parks, streets, footpaths) although there is an increased probability of faith-based hate crime occurring about religious/community buildings


note : I just collect some informations 🙂


One thought on “Moslems in United Kingdom

  1. Aw, this was a really nice post. In idea I would like to put in writing like this additionally taking time and actual effort to make a very good article but what can I say I procrastinate alot and by no means seem to get something done.

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